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日內瓦公約,現今也適用

zxlxm 于2020-01-16發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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國際紅十字會稱《日內瓦公約》仍具現實意義,該法要求沖突各方遵守相關規定,包括禁止酷刑、適當對待平民、照顧戰場傷員,以及有尊嚴的處理遺骸。
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ICRC: Laws of War Remain Relevant Today Despite New Challenges

國際紅十字會稱《日內瓦公約》仍具現實意義

And events marking the 70th anniversary of the 1949 Geneva Conventions are underway,the International Committee of the Red Cross says these four landmark treaties delineating the law of war are as relevant today as they were when they came into force August 12,1949. Lisa Schlein reports for VOA,from ICRC headquarters in GENEVA.

《1949年日內瓦公約》70周年紀念活動正在進行當中。國際紅十字會表示,這4條具有里程碑意義的公約劃定了戰爭法。時至今日,它仍然跟1949年8月12日生效之際具有同樣的現實意義。美國之音的麗莎· 施萊茵從國際紅十字會日內瓦總部發來報道。

The 1949 Geneva Conventions grew out of the horrors of World War II. It took only four months for the four treaties,which are universally ratified,to come into force. The treaties contain the core elements of the International Humanitarian Law,the law of war,which aims to reduce suffering in armed conflict.

《1949年日內瓦公約》源于二戰的恐怖?,F在得到全球普遍認可的這4條公約當時只花了4個月時間就正式生效。這些公約載有國際人道主義法(即戰爭法)的核心要素,目的是減少武裝沖突中的苦難。

The law requires all parties to a conflict to abide by provisions that include a prohibition against torture,appropriate treatment of civilians,caring for the wounded on the battlefield,and the dignified treatment of the remains of the dead.

該法要求沖突各方遵守相關規定,包括禁止酷刑、適當對待平民、照顧戰場傷員,以及有尊嚴的處理遺骸。

ICRC Director of International Law and Policy,Helen Durham,recognizes the law of war is not always followed,but she notes when they work,they have an impact. She says ICRC delegates in the field see these laws in action every day.

國際紅十字會國際法與政策司司長海倫·達勒姆承認這項戰爭法并不總是能得到遵守,但她指出,當該法起效時,就能產生影響。她說,國際紅十字會的戰地代表每天都能看到這些法律在起作用。

We see,for example,the capacity for us to get fresh water to six million Syrian. This is the law of war in action. We see every time a wounded combatant passes a checkpoint to get access to medical assistance,it is the laws or war in action,she says.

她說:“例如我們看到,我們能夠向600萬敘利亞人提供淡水。這就是戰爭法在起作用。我們看到,每次傷兵通過檢查站獲取醫療援助,這就是戰爭法在起作用。”

At the same time,Durham acknowledges the many challenges to the Conventions posed by new technologies. She says issues such as cyber warfare,artificial intelligence,autonomous weapons and the changing nature of conflict present new threats.

與此同時,達勒姆認識到新技術給《日內瓦公約》提出了許多挑戰。她說,例如網絡戰、人工智能、自主武器以及不斷變化的沖突本質都帶來新的威脅。

When the Conventions were crafted 70 years ago,she says international wars among belligerent states dominated. Now,most wars are internal,civil conflicts. She tells VOA as far back as the 1970s,a survey found a dramatic increase in civilian casualties as a consequence of this change.

她說,70年前起草《日內瓦公約》時,各交戰國之間的國際戰爭占主導地位?,F在,大多數戰爭是國家內部沖突。她對美國之音表示,早在上世紀70年代就有調查發現,平民傷亡人數急劇上升,這就是這種變化的后果。

In World War I,I think the statistics are one out of nine people killed was a civilian. In World War II,it was around 50-50. And,then when you looked at the Vietnam and other wars of decolonization,the statistics inversed where up to 90 percent of casualties during conflict were civilians...To date,that continues. So,civilians are very often the major casualties,she says.

她說:“我認為一戰的統計數據是每9名遇難者中有1人是平民。二戰大致是五五開。然后當我們審視越南和其它去殖民化戰爭時,統計數據反了過來,沖突期間9成死傷者是平民。截至目前,這種情況還在繼續。因此,平民往往是主要的傷亡者。”

Durham says an area of major concern for the ICRC is the treatment of detainees. She says clear rules governing the care of prisoners of war are laid out in the Conventions. However,these frequently are not enforced in the context of civil wars where non-state actors are involved.

達勒姆表示,國際紅十字會尤為關注戰俘待遇。她說,公約中列出了關于照顧戰俘的明確規定。但是,在涉及到非國家行為者的內戰中,這些規定往往不會得到執行。

She says this is one area where international law must evolve to make the laws of war more relevant to present day existing reality.

她說,這是國際法必須推進領域,以使戰爭法更加符合當今現實。

Lisa Schlein,for VOANEWS,GENEVA.

美國之音新聞節目的施萊茵從日內瓦為你報道。

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