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BBC隨身英語:青少年的大腦發育過程和特點

zxlxm 于2020-01-16發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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人們曾以為人類的大腦在幼兒時期結束時就完全停止發育了,然而有研究表明人類的大腦從青春期開始到成年初期的這段時間內仍然在變化。
    小E英語歡迎您,請點擊播放按鈕開始播放……

Inside a teenager's brain

了解青少年的大腦發育過程和特點

What were you like as a teenager? I was a nightmare. I was rude to my parents, always stayed out late, never did my homework, hung out with the wrong people and made lots of bad decisions. Apparently, this is the age when teenagers are out of control and behave badly. Maybe, if you're a teenager now, you think this is unfair criticism or it's not your fault. Well, you might be right!

你十幾歲的時候是什么樣子的?我就是個噩夢。我對父母很粗魯,總是很晚才回家,從不做家庭作業,和不應該的人出去鬼混,而且做了很多糟糕的決定。顯然,這個年齡的青少年是叛逆的。也許,你就是一個青少年,你認為這樣的批評不公平,或者這不是你的錯。好吧,也許你是對的!

Experts have found that it's a teenager's brain that is to blame. Between the ages of approximately 13 to 19 - a period known as adolescence - the brain is still developing in areas that control behaviour. This has an impact on learning and multitasking, stress and memory, sleep, addiction, and decision-making. For parents, these consequences often manifest themselves in a variety of behaviours that they may have previously blamed on hormones or just moodiness.

專家發現,青少年時期的大腦才是罪魁禍首。在大約13歲到19歲之間——也就是我們所知的青春期——大腦仍在控制行為的區域發育。這對學習和多任務處理、壓力和記憶、睡眠、成癮和決策都有影響。在父母眼里,這通常表現為各種各樣的行為,他們之前可能把這歸咎于激素或情緒低落。

This is quite a new discovery, according to Professor Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, who, speaking on the BBC radio programme The Life Scientific, says "when I was at university, the dogma in the text books was that the vast majority of brain development goes on in the first few years of life and nothing much changes after mid-childhood. That dogma is completely false."

這是相當新穎的發現。莎拉-杰恩·貝克摩爾教授在BBC廣播節目生命科學欄目中表示:“我上大學時,課本上告訴我們的是絕大多數人的大腦只在頭幾年發育,童年時期以后就沒什么變化了。這是完全錯誤的。”

So our brains are still developing much later than was originally thought. Is this the perfect excuse for teenagers to lounge around and not get their homework done on time? Of course not! According to Professor Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, it's to do with our prefrontal cortex - that's the part of our brain right at the front, just behind the forehead. She says "it's involved in a whole range of very high-level cognitive tasks such as decision making and planning - we know that this region is undergoing very very large amounts of development during the adolescent years". This is the part of the brain critically involved in planning, and, for a teenager, this hasn't developed yet. So getting organised to do their homework, for example, can come as a bit of a challenge.

所以,我們的大腦發育的時間比我們最初認為的要長得多。這是青少年無所事事,不按時完成作業的完美借口嗎?當然不是!據薩拉-杰恩·布萊克莫爾教授說,這與我們的前額皮質有關——前額皮質位于大腦前端的額頭部位。她表示:“它的發育涉及一系列非常高水平的認知任務,比如決策和規劃——我們知道,這個區域在青少年時期經歷著非常非常大的發展。”這是大腦涉及規劃的關鍵部位,而在青少年時期,這一部位尚未完全發育好。所以,打個比方,讓孩子們這個時候自覺做作業還是比較困難的。

I wish I'd known about this because instead of telling my teacher I'd left my homework on the bus or that the dog had eaten it. Now I could say, "Sorry sir, my brain isn't developed enough for the cognitive task of planning my homework".

真希望我早就知道這一點,因為那樣我就不用和老師說我把作業落在公共汽車上了或者被狗吃了。反之,我可以說,“對不起,老師,我的大腦還沒有發育到可以自覺完成作業的程度。。”

 

詞匯表

nightmare

“噩夢”,棘手的人或事

out of control

失控

adolescence

青春期

multitasking

同時做多件事情

hormone

荷爾蒙

moodiness

情緒多變,喜怒無常

dogma

教條

lounge around

悠閑度日

prefrontal cortex

前額皮層

cognitive task

認知任務

adolescent

青春期的,青少年的

critically

極其地

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